To the Reader: This file was created with Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. It has been edited to correct scanning errors, though some may still remain. We regret any inconvenience. Errors in the original pages are marked inside angle-brackets (<>). Some corrections are made (<ARCHIVIST'S CORRECTION: >), some comments added (<ARCHIVIST'S NOTE: >), other errors, mostly typographical and spelling, are marked <sic> to indicate that this is how they appeared in the original, and a few mysteries are marked <?>. Researchers are encouraged to consult the originals or the full-page copies available here when accuracy is needed for quotes or other scholarly use. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.1 (front cover) ------------------------------------ Pan a magazine about boy-love NEWS: Copenhagen, Barcelona, San Francisco, London, New York THE EXPERIENCE WORLD OF CHILDREN by Drs. Theo Sandfort CHILD PROTECTION, ENGLISH STYLE by Roger Moody THE HORIZON LINE by Gilbert Villerot BOOKS: The Death of Narcissus; J.M. Barrie And The Lost Boys THE BATTLE LINE: Spotlight on L.A. cop Lloyd Martin ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.2 ------------------------------------ <full-page photograph> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.3 ------------------------------------ PAN a magazine about boy-love Number 5, May, 1980 PAN magazine is published bi-monthly by SPARTACUS, P.O. Box 3496, 1001 AG Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Editor in Chief, John D. Stamford; Executive Editor, Frank Torey. It is a serious international non-pornographic English language magazine about homophile paedophilia. PAN does not advocate the violation of any national laws, although it maintains the right to criticize them wherever they suppress the universal right to sexual self-disposal. Opinions expressed in signed articles are those of the writer and not necessarily those of PAN. Editorial, art and photographic contributions should be submitted at the above address at least two months before date of publication and, if not used, will be returned if a self-addressed envelope with appropriate international postal coupons is provided. WHAT'S INSIDE IN BRIEF Copenhagen/Barcelona San Francisco/London/New York 4 EXPERIENCE WORLD OF CHILDREN IN PAEDOPHILE RELATIONS by Drs. Theo Sandfort 10 CHILD PROTECTION, ENGLISH STYLE by Roger Moody 15 THE HORIZON LINE, a reflection by Gilbert Villerot 19 BOOKS: The Death of Narcissus, by Morris Fraser; J.M. Barrie And The Lost Boys, by Andrew Birkin 20 BOY-CAUGHT: On Physical Shame by Dr. Edward Brongersma 25 THE BATTLE LINE: Los Angeles cop Lloyd Martin 27 All photos appearing in this issue of PAN, except for the one of Drs. Sandfort appearing on page 14, are by Thierry. WE NEED YOUR HELP. The world is our arena, but we cannot know what is going on everywhere without the assistance of our readers. News clippings, comments, evaluation of the social climate with respect to paedophilia in every land are most urgently needed if we are to make PAN the best, most informative magazine on boy-love ever produced. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.4 ------------------------------------ IN BRIEF . . . COPENHAGEN - A beautiful Danish film called You're Not Alone is making the rounds presently of European and North American movie theatres. It shouldn't be missed, since it deals with the problems which arise when friendship between two boys on the threshold of puberty deepens into sexual attraction. Directors-pruducers <sic> are Lasse Nielsen and Ernst Johansen. "Kim" and "Bo", the two young boys, are affecting and very, very appealing. UKIAH, CALIFORNIA, USA -- A bizzare kidnapping story was fascinating California readers this spring. On March 2 a handsome 14-year-old boy by the name of Steven Stayner hitch-hiked to freedom here with his five-year-old "foster brother" Timmy White. Seven years ago, when Steven was only seven himself, he had been brought by one Kenneth Parnell, then in his early forties, to a remote cabin 40 miles from this North California town. Parnell told the boy that his family no longer wanted him and had "given" Steven away, an explanation the boy never fully accepted. Although the police were careful not to prejudice Parnell's trial with advance publicity, the motive of the kidnapping seemed clear enough: Parnell has a previous conviction for kidnapping and sexual contact with an eight-year-old boy. Although Parnell looked after the boys well enough, Steven wasn't altogether happy about how he was living. At school he was "Dennis Parnell", son of Kenneth and Barbara Parnell. There Steven/Dennis wanted to join the football team but lived so far away he couldn't. He described his life as "boring". "I just stayed at home and read or something." He had been thinking about leaving Parnell for some two years but only made up his mind when Parnell brought home Timmy three weeks previously. "I didn't want what happened to me to happen to Timmy," Steven said. The possibilities, of course, are endless, and the public probably will never (should never) know the truth of the matter. Parnell's sexual interest is evidently in the very young. Steve had passed through puberty. A new boy had come to the cabin. Steven is now reunited with his family in Merced. SOURCES: San Francisco Chronicle, 3, 4 & 5 March, Los Angeles Times, 4 & 9 March, 1980 NEW YORK, USA -- The March issue of gay magazine Christopher Street had two items of interest to boy-lovers. Page three reproduces, in an advertisement for a Robert Samuel Gallery April exhibition, the controversial poster by Jacqueline Livingston of her six-year-old son masturbating which got her fired from Cornell University and hounded by the paedophobic executive director of the American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children (See PAN 4, page 10). Of equal interest is a very good short story called, rather unimaginatively, "First Love" by one Edmund White. Don't let the dreadful cover illustration of two hoody looking young men slurping on a common icecream soda put you off -- the story is about love (with a lot of explicit sex) between two boys, aged 12 and 15. AALST, BELGIUM -- Some months ago the Dutch Workgroup for Youth Emancipation produced a full-colour poster showing a little boy and a little girl pulling down each other's slips to examine where they were ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.5 ------------------------------------ differently made. The accompanying text read, "Boss in our own pants. We decide about sex for ourselves -- that's what you do, isn't it?" The poster has appeared discretely <sic> in many places in Holland without causing much of a stir, but in this Belgian town it received a somewhat different reception. When one enthusiast put it up in his window where children walking to and from the neighbouring school could (and did) stop to examine it, the police made him take it down. The result was predictable -- lots of publicity, including a fine reproduction of the poster in the local newspaper De Morgen, and a big increase in sales. AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS -- For three days, May 1 through May 3, a commission of the Council of Europe dealing with the general problem of decriminalisation (reducing the extent of penal laws) met in Amsterdam to discuss, among other matters, sexual acts involving minors. Among those appearing before the commission were the producers of Would You Like a Piece of Candy? (See PAN 2) and regular PAN contributor Dr. Edward Brongersma. The Candy company spoke of their experiences producing the review -- what they had learned about paedophilia themselves and the response of audiences both in The Netherlands and Belgium. Dr. Brongersma spoke on three general categories of paedosexual acts: 1) those accompanied by violence or coercion (where, he felt, the force or violence should be punished and not specifically the sex), 2) those in which the child fully consents, in which he may even have taken the initiative (which, of course, should be decriminalised) and 3) an "in-between" category, where the child finds the act slightly unpleasant, or runs away, is a bit frightened, sniggers, etc. This last category, Dr. Brongersma felt, is best dealt with not through criminal proceedings. Foremost in the minds of the commission was the extent to which police questioning traumatized children involved in these sexual activities. There were members of the commission from most of the countries of Europe. Judge Vitaliano Esposito, from Naples, was most impressed by Dr. Brongersma's qualitative distinction between different kinds of paedosexual acts. Not surprisingly, the representative from the United Kingdom had the greatest difficulty accepting the idea that these sexual acts could ever not harm kids, or that police questioning could hurt them more than the sex itself. SAN FRANCISCO, USA -- A "conference" on "Sexual Abuse Issues and Perspectives" took place here on February 29th in the Hotel Leamington, Oakland. In preparation the California anti-child-sex forces were grabbing the headlines again. According to Seth Goldstein, a Berkley police officer, there are 300,000 paedophiles in the US. He has obtained confessions from 10 and each, he discovered, had had sexual experiences as a child. As adults, therefore, their desire for children is overpowering. 200 male <coloured box (sidebar):> BARCELONA, SPAIN -- From our paedophile workgroup friends in Germany (the DSAP) we have received the following: "In April of this year four members of DSAP from Hamburg, Kiel and Krefeld took part in the International Gay Association congress in Spain. After discussion in several work groups the IGA declared its almost unanimous support for the paedophile movement. A conspicuous exception was the British CHE (Campaign for Homosexual Emancipation). <ARCHIVIST'S CORRECTION: Campaign for Homosexual Equality> The acceptance of paedophilia by the IGA was a particularly significant step, especially with regard to the current legal difficulties which Paedophile Information Exchange is experiencing. At this conference the DSAP representatives were also able to establish personal contact with "The Fallen Angels", who are prime movers in organising a defense campaign in support of PIE. Discussion has already been started in the DSAP as to how we can lend support to PIE and in consequence of the IGS conference the DSAP will shortly be producing information in English on paedophilia for distribution to homosexual groups at an international level." <end of coloured box (sidebar)> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.6 ------------------------------------ <photograph> paedophiles seem to be confined in the Atascadero State Hospital as "mentally disordered sex offenders", a figure which brings to grizzly <sic> life the realities of being a boy-lover in California. This was revealed by "psychiatric technician", Paul Burkhard, who is also director of the "sexual orientation program" at Atascadero. It is apparently significant to Burkhard, as it is to Goldstein, that most of these men had been involved in sexual activities with other children as youngsters. Predictably, Lloyd Martin of the Los Angeles Police Department (See THE BATTLE LINE) delivered himself of a few opinions. "Sometimes I get personally involved with the case. Then it's very hard not to take a gun and blow the guy's brains out. But paedophiles are human beings, too. I understand the paedophiles. They are very insecure, very lonely." Martin is convinced that when a "child victim" reaches a certain age "a stone wall" goes up and his paedophile "exploiter" is no longer interested. The child, dependent on his older friend for attention and affection, is then discarded, goes on the street, because he knows little else but sex, and becomes a prostitute. Goldstein, however, recognizes the continuity of some of these relationships, which go on long after sex has stopped. "In one case locally the kid is 21 and the paedophile is still sending him money." SOURCE: San Francisco Examiner, 17 February, 1980 LONDON -- The way English police persecute paedophiles to create publicity for themselves, and at the same time excuse their own lack of performance in solving real crimes, was clearly illustrated recently in the case of missing 15-year-old South Kensington schoolboy Martin Allen, who disappeared on 5 November last year. All the police have to show for their "investigation" is the arrest of four suspected "child molesters" who seem to have had no contact whatever with the missing Martin Allen. "These arrests have come as a spin off from our main inquiry," said Detective Chief Inspector David Veness. SOURCE: London Evening News, 8 February, 1980 WEST GERMANY -- A sinister tendency is developing for "feminists" to align themselves with the mainly right-wing forces trying to stamp out child sexuality and paedophilia in the Western world. The April issue of Emma Magazine carried an interview with one Alice Schwartzer, <ARCHIVIST'S CORRECTION: Alice Schwarzer> a sort of German Densen-Gerber. Schwartzer's <sic> anti-sex associates are in the communist end of the spectrum, however. The article is a thoroughly disgusting piece of anti-sex feminist hysteria which the editors of Emma should be ashamed of themselves for printing, but it is worth reading if only to see what the doctrinaire leftists and the girls in "women's rights" are saying about the rights of others. SOURCE: Emma, No. 4, 1980. THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS -- Everyone in Holland is wondering how the new Queen Beatrix will react to various aspects of Dutch life. Perhaps a clue to her feelings about boy-love can be seen in a small ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.7 ------------------------------------ incident which happened late last year. Beatrix, then Princess, was vice-chairman of the Dutch National Committee for the International Year of the Child. The Committee was going to publish a book about Dutch children and had originally planned to include an interview with a nine-year-old boy, Michel, who discussed, among other things, his very active sex life and his contacts with a paedophile man. When the article reached the Executive Committee, however, it was scratched -- until Beatrix intervened. After reading the interview with the outspoken Michel, Beatrix said, "What's so terrible about that?" When last heard, the excised article had been reinstated and will appear in the book this spring. SOURCE: Algemeen Dagblad, 15 December, 1979 WOODS HOLE, MASS., USA -- Information on Ralph Bonnell, the Californian who set up photographer George Jacobs for Los Angeles cop Lloyd Martin (See PAN 4, page 6), is beginning to come in. As a young man he seems to have been a political conservative, was actually President of the San Francisco Young Republicans at one time and on a first name basis with Governor Ronald Reagan. He also was producer of an FM radio psychology talk show. During the late sixties and early seventies he had a boyfriend by the name of Dennis to whom he was deeply devoted. Gradually he became disillusioned with conservatism, claiming to friends that he had been "brainwashed". It was during this period that he made friends with many paedophiles -- among them Guy Strait and George Jacobs. He was an enthusiastic supporter of the early, non-pornographic boy picture books, even contributed to the publication costs of Den Nichols' pioneering Toward A Perspective For Boy-Lovers, about which he wrote that he hoped it would "help the 'normal world' understand the boy-lover and help show that we are not the monsters that some think we are, and . . . help the average boy-lover understand himself better." But already Bonnell's life was beginning to turn sour. An acquaintance, who happened to be wanted by the law, interfered in a relationship he was building with a boy (not Dennis) and he told a friend, "I have too much honor to call in the cops on a boy-lover, even one who has worked me over like he has." Time seems to have eroded that honour. From the bright promise of his youth he became an intermittently employed TV repairman, owing people money and quarrelling with his friends. By the end of the decade he was a ripe victim waiting for Lloyd Martin to pluck -- a willing tool to set in motion the George Jacobs tragedy. LOS ANGELES, USA -- The March issue of CHIC carried a story on Valida Davila and the Childhood Sensuality Circle of San Diego, followed by a provocative short article by Dr. James W. Prescott, President of the Institute of Humanistic Science. Dr. Prescott, it may be remembered, was the researcher who, in a cross-cultural survey, concluded that the societies which allowed their children maximum sexual freedom were the most <photograph> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.8 ------------------------------------ gentle, kindly and least afflicted with criminality and violence, while those societies with strong suppression of childhood sexuality tended to be militaristic, cruel and have serious problems with crime and aggression. In the present article, however, Dr. Prescott comes out strongly against "giving apparent justification to adult-child sexual relationships" -- and for a curious reason: "It's my view that our culture is predominantly sexually dysfunctional and that adult dysfunctions will almost invariably figure in adult-child sexual relationships. Thus the many worthwhile objectives of the Childhood Sensuality Circle in seeking to educate the public about child sexuality can be negated by giving apparent support to such possibly damaging relationships. "I'm arguing," Dr. Prescott goes on, "that we're faced with a sort of Catch-22. Adults are emotionally and sexually dysfunctional because they were maltreated as children; and children are sexually and emotionally dysfunctional because they're influenced by affectionally dysfunctional adults!" This vicious circle should be broken, it seems, by giving children "affection and nurturance", but just how we "emotionally and sexually dysfunctional" adults are to accomplish this Dr. Prescott does not say, except, apparently, to keep out of kids' sexual lives. On firmer ground, Dr. Prescott singles out "our Western religious values" as the highest barrier to ending "physical and psychological violence against children." SOURCE: CHIC, March, 1980 WASHINGTON, USA -- Anita Bryant, famous homophobe founder of SOS ("Save Our Sons"), is shaping up as another American witch hunt thief. In 1978 she founded something called the "Anita Bryant Ministries for Counseling Homosexuals" with an eye to "coverting" <sic> gays and paedophiles. For this task she raised nearly one million dollars, the 1978 income tax returns for the Ministries reveals. Of this, $450,000 was spent in "direct fees for raising contributions", which seems to have included anti-porn and anti "child abuse" activities of such (illegal) subsidiary organizations as "Protect America's Children." And of the remaining half-million plus? An incredibly small $150 was spent on actual counseling, leaving virtually all of it in Anita's hands. It is becoming increasingly clear that of all the rackets recently developed by America's slippery virtue vendors, paed-hunting is one of the sweetest. SOURCE: San Francisco Sentinal <sic>, 21 March, 1980 NEW YORK, USA -- US Postal Service Inspector Martin Locker (33) seems to be building a career for himself here fighting child pornography. Last year he became "prohibited mail specialist" and his job brought him into contact with kiddie porn mailed to the US from Europe. "It was a shocker for Mr. Locker," said the staid Wall Street Journal. "I was raised in New York City," Locker said. "I thought I had seen a lot. I hadn't." Murder, mugging, thievery and thugging were nothing, it seems, compared with the horror of seeing photos of children and adolescents engaged in sex! Locker has completed over 50 child-porn investigations and is widely rumoured to be up to his elbows in flamboyant entrapment schemes. Thus far only three cases have produced convictions -- mainly, Locker protests bitterly, because the child "victim" rarely consents to come forward in the prosecutions. Wall Street Journal, 23 January, 1980 NEW YORK, USA -- The success of the campaign waged against intelligent discussion of boy-love by such psychopaths as embezzlers Robert Leonard and Judianne Densen-Gerber can be seen in the reaction of New York's "liberal" listener-access radio station WBAI to some recent programming on the subject. On Wednesday, 26 March, reporter Sidney Smith aired on Gay Rap a taped interview he had made with Dutch Senator, and regular PAN contributor, Edward Brongersma on paedophilia. On Thursday, 26 March, Sidney Smith was fired, with the explanation that the material did not represent (and might hurt the interests of) gays and that the tape was "full of inac- ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.9 ------------------------------------ curacies and baseless statements" Actually, it was later revealed, Smith was only fired from WABI's gay programming division but has been retained in the station's art and literature department, where his next job will be a gay poet's look at Walt Whitman. Sidney Smith, as well as being a radio reporter and poet of distinction, runs Dragonfly Press, 1502 President Street, Brooklyn, NY 11213. Another incident shows how the William Katz/New York Police Department coalition works to throttle artistic expression in this area. This spring the Leslie-Lohman Gallery was preparing for a photographic exhibition when one day Charles Leslie was paid a little visit. POLICE I'm Detective Ryan from the Vice Squad (flashing badge). We hear you're having a photo show. LESLIE Yes. POLICE Anyone come in with any dirty pictures of kids? LESLIE We don't deal in dirty pictures. POLICE Okay, pictures of boys, you know what I mean. LESLIE We don't deal in pictures of children. POLICE Okay. If anyone comes in with any, you call me. We'll have somebody checking out the show. "My God," said Leslie later, "we're the oldest gay gallery in America, and they're treating us like a porn shop!" Several quite innocent photos of boys he might have used he decided to return to their owners. But the forces of suppression and repression haven't won all the battles. Jacqueline Livingston, as mother and former art professor, seems to have frustrated William Katz's frantic efforts to put her in prison. Now she has exhibited her controversial posters at the Samuel Gallery here. Despite a near total blackout on publicity (most newspapers and magazines refused to print the announcement or "lost" the copy -- one brave exception being Christopher Street), the exhibit was very well attended and, better yet, sales of her poster sets were brisk -- at $400 a crack! <coloured box (sidebar):> NEW YORK, USA -- William Katz, executive director of something called the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, seems to be trying on the mantle "psychiatrist" Judianne Densen-Gerber relinquished in the wake of the Odyssey House scandals (See PAN 2, page 5). He first came to national attention by trying to get Tomkins County (New York) authorities to jail Cornell University Art Professor Jacqueline Livingston for publishing nude posters of her six-year-old son playing with his genitals. Now he is developing a cozy relationship with the New York City vice squad and gutter press. On March 17 the New York Post ran a half-page story headed "Cops study kiddie porn film in hunt for missing Etan" with an obviously posed photo of the bearded Katz ploughing through piles of slides, magazines and movie reels with clipboard in hand. Among the startling revelations Katz made to reporter Joanne Wasserman of the Post, 200,000 children a year are used in America's kiddie porn industry, and "if you want to have sex with a child you can buy one." (The edge comes off this statement a little, however, when he goes on to say that "There are parents who will sell their child for $50 a hour."). The article was sparked by the disappearance on March 25 of a seven-year-old boy by the name of Etan Patz and the raid on March 15 by the police on the apartment of one John Peters, which netted some $25,000 worth of porn. As far as can be gathered from the Post article, the only connection between porn collector Peters and the missing boy is that they lived in the same city. SOURCE: New York Post, 17 March, 1980 HOLLYWOOD, USA -- A beautiful, lyrical movie called "The Black Stallion" is steadily gaining ground in the American public's affection and is at last coming to Europe. Directed by Francis Ford Coppela, <sic> it is a contemporary reenactment of the Alexander-Bucephalus story. The twelve-year-old hero is played by Kelly Reno with beauty and conviction. <end of coloured box (sidebar)> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.10 ------------------------------------ EXPERIENCE WORLD OF CHILDREN IN PAEDOPHILE RELATIONS by Drs. Theo Sandfort In deciding what one's attitude toward paedophilia should be it is of utmost importance to know how the children themselves feel about the paedophile relationships in which they are involved. Until now, as a result of the biased approaches taken, scientific research has given us no information whatever about this. In part that is because only those children whose sexual contacts have brought them to the attention of the law or the various social services have been examined by psychologists and sociologists. With this in mind I decided to study children who were presently experiencing paedophile relationships and to determine as far as possible how they viewed their world -- especially those aspects of their situation which would seem to us to be rather unusual. My group consisted of five boys between 11 and 14 years of age (it proved to be impractical to find suitable girl subjects for similar studies). The length of the relationships in which the boys were involved varied from six months to four years. No claim is here made that this group is really representative, although none of these relationships were pre-selected for study to show paedophilia in its most favourable light. The group is also unusual in that there are no boys in it who have had dealings with the police authorities or the social services because of their paedophile contacts. The method To carry out this research I used the so-called "Self Confrontation Method" (Hermans 1974, 1975, 1978 and Bonke 1977) because, for this particular project, it had a number of advantages. Let me very briefly describe how it works. Starting with a number of fixed, general questions, the subject (in this case the child) lays out, with the help of the researcher, what he finds important in his "experience world". He maps this out into "value areas", which can be of very different character: for example, they can be persons, fears or desires, events, activities and so forth. Together with the researcher the child explores the intensity of a certain set of feelings which he experiences in each of his value areas. He also examines how often he has these feelings and how often he would like to have them. Different kinds of statistical analyses can be made from the numerical "feeling scores" 'so derived and thus insight gained into the emotional significance of each of the value areas which comprise the experience world of each child. One can see, among other things, how important each area is to each particular person, whether that area is felt to be a positive or a negative factor in his life, also which areas have the strongest influence upon how he feels about things in general. These insights are discussed with the child later and in so doing additional information is obtained. For the purposes of this research the original self-confrontation method was modified to include questions to the children in three related areas: the older partner with whom the child had the relationship, the sexual contact which the child had with this person, and the home situation of the child. This makes it possible to compare the results of the separate areas of his experience world and compare them with each other. Although the boys mentioned spontaneously other value areas related to the paedophile relationship (such as persons threatening the relationship), in this article we will only consider those common areas introduced by the researcher. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.11 ------------------------------------ The Sexual Contact Every boy studied had the opportunity to call the sexual contact he had with his older partner whatever he wished. This resulted in a number of differently designated value areas: "love making", "fooling around", "sexual contacts", "night friendship" and, again, "sexual contact". All mean essentially the same thing, but allowing the boy to characterize the activity in his own words made it more recognizable to him. It should be understood that the words "sexual contact" do not always mean the same thing to children as to adults. When we examine the feelings of these boys about their sexual contacts, it appears that those of one of them, Sander, are rather unique. Sander said that he never thought positively about the sex; he regularly experienced such feelings as distaste, fear and guilt. Of all the value areas mapped out in his self-examination, this appears to be the most negative. However, in Sander's experience world sexual contact was a rather under-developed phenomenon -- it seemed to be of minor importance. This can be seen in what he himself said, "Well, I really do that very little." The feeling tone of this area did not influence very much how Sander felt about things in general, so one might suspect that the sexual contact Sander had with his older partner did not on the whole disturb his general positive feelings of well-being. In the case of the remaining four boys, their sexual contacts were quite differently perceived; in comparison with the other value areas they formulated, these four boys had rather positive to very positive feelings. Scoring high in this value area were: nice, happy, satisfied, free and, somewhat less frequently, safe. They scarcely mentioned negative feelings at all. This is quite contrary to what one would expect from listening to public opinion, reading what has been written on the subject and examining research data. However, it agrees well with what paedophiles themselves have said (Sandfort 1979a). Since positive feelings were much stronger than negative feelings, sexual contact for these boys was obviously a positively coloured experience. In comparison with the other value areas of their experience worlds, however, all five of these boys were only slightly to moderately preoccupied with their sexual contacts; although for some boys it was important, for none of them was it a dominant part of his experience world. To the extent that sexual contact influenced how the boys felt in general, it made a positive contribution. The feelings which three of the boys had about their sexual contact were identical to the feelings which they would like to have had about things in general. With each of the five boys the manner in which they experienced their sexual contacts is more or less strongly correlated with other aspects of their experience worlds. This means that the child does not perceive the sexual contact as an isolated phenomenon; his feelings here are reflected in other value areas. The Home Environment Different aspects of the home situation were defined as frequently by the children themselves as at my request. Examples were "We always have to clean up the mess Father makes", "Dad is very mean", "Mother", "My own room", "I'm usually the scapegoat", "Father always has to be right", "it isn't fair that I always get the blame" (this boy felt that he was regularly and unjustly punished), "Quarrelling" and so forth. These value areas can serve to define the home situation and the way the boy evaluates them can be used as a rough measure of how the child feels in his home. Three boys experienced their home situations as predominantly negative; the other two saw their home lives as mostly positive. The boys differed in how important they felt their home situations were in their lives. There was a further difference in the influence which this area exerted upon their feelings about things in general and they corresponded in a different way ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.12 ------------------------------------ with how they would like to have felt. Thus it is difficult to generalize about this value area. Instead, let us examine the home situation of two of these boys a little more closely, and from this we will be able to see how a very negatively experienced home situation can occupy very different positions in the experience worlds of different people. Both Rene and Andre had few positive and many negative feelings in this area, and the home situation in general appeared in a strongly negative aspect compared with other areas in their experience worlds. Rene formulated, "Pa is very mean" and "Pieter (his father) and Mark, because they are always pulling your hair". Compared with other value areas, these were rated as of only slight to moderate importance, but the feelings which he had about his home situation were in general not at all those which he would like to have and they also corresponded rather closely with the way he felt about things in general, which was rather bad. In other words, the unpleasant feelings such as anger, sadness, anxiety and dislike which Rene associated with his home situation also influenced his prevailing emotional state. The bad home situation had the greatest influence upon how Rene generally felt and he had not yet been able to develop other value areas which were strong enough to positively colour his feelings about things in general. Andre also formulated many negative value areas ("Quarrelling", "Usually the scapegoat") associated with his home life. As with Rene, he rated them as of little importance compared with other aspects of his life. But the quality of his experiences in this area did not correspond closely with his feelings in other areas, nor with those of his ideal experience: negative feelings felt at home (fear and dislike) were not characteristic of his normal emotional climate, which he characterized by happiness, contentment and freedom, nor of the feelings which he wished he could have (nice, safe, contented, free). In contrast with Rene, Andre had obviously been able to develop value areas within his experience world which had been able to counterbalance the important negative aspects of his home situation. The Older Partner and the Significance of the Relationship When one considers the actual feelings which the boys had towards their older partners, one is struck by their marked similarity. The boys had almost all of the following feelings frequently to very often: nice, safe, happy, contented, negative feelings such as fear, dislike, embarrassment and guilt were almost or completely absent. Examining the feeling scores it is clear that the attraction a boy feels for his older partner is based on the fact he is not frightened but, on the contrary, feels safe with him, enjoys himself with him and is happy about this. These scores agree well with what the boys themselves subsequently said to the interviewer about their paedophile friends. Despite the positive feelings all the boys had for their older partners, the significance of these relationships appeared to vary a lot from boy to boy. Two spontaneously formulated their older partners as value areas, while the remaining three only did this after I had asked questions leading in this direction. While for three boys the older partner was his most important value area, this was not the case with the other two. Let us examine the situation with each of the five boys individually in order to clarify some other areas involved in the relationship. The older partner played a central role in the experience world of Andre. His paedophile friend was of the greatest importance to him and the feelings he associated with the man were identical to those he would have liked in general to have. Within his experience world his older partner was a strong counterweight to the predominantly negative aspects Andre associated with his home situation. Should there be no real improvement at home (and it is questionable how much there could be), the relationship which Andre has with his friend would be of cri- ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.13 ------------------------------------ tical importance in his value system. If, for example, he was separated from his friend through outside interference, it would have rather bad results for Andre. It would be questionable, then, whether he would be in a fit state to continue in some of his presently formulated positive areas, such as "finishing school", or be able to develop new ones. It is more or less the same with Wouter as with Andre. Here, too, the influence of the different areas close to the relationship (among them "Gerard" (the paedophile) and "Gerard, sex and nice things") was strong enough to counterbalance the very negative home situation. For Andre and Wouter it is not inconceivable that if the paedophile relationship is given a good chance to work it will influence favourably other areas of their experience worlds heretofore negatively perceived, such as the home environment. Probably something of this sort has happened already in the case of Sander. Both Sander and his older partner told of how bad everything was at home and at school before their relationship began. Later, while discussing with Sander the results of their research, the boy singled out his older partner as the person responsible for the good relationship which now existed at home between him and his mother. It was somewhat different with Rene. All areas close to the relationship he evaluated very positively; they were of the utmost importance to him. However, they actually had little influence upon how Rene felt about things in general, which was most strongly determined by the negatively experienced home situation. Home was so powerful in his experience world that the relationship had little chance of bettering it. We discovered, during his self-examination, one area which, if developed, could play a constructive role in Rene's experience world, and that was in his social contacts with contemporaries. His older partner must leave him room in their relationship for this. It is more difficult to comment upon the significance of Boudewijn's relationship with his paedophile friend. During his self-examination, no areas were defined which played a strong role in how he felt about things in general. As far as can be seen from the research results, a termination in the paedophile relationship would be less disturbing to Boudewijn than to the other four boys. In general it can be said that both the older partner and the paedophile relationship played different but rather important roles in the experience worlds of all five of the boys. The Significance of the Results To a very great extent the significance of these results is part and parcel of the way in which they were obtained. The "self-confrontation method" does away with many of the disadvantages of traditional methods of research (Hermans 1975), and for this particular problem -- what are the experiences of children involved in paedophile relationships? -- it is an eminently suitable method of investigation. Because the child has the opportunity to formulate for himself significant aspects of his world, and can bring them <photograph> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.14 ------------------------------------ together with each other, an all-embracing, specific and authentic picture can be developed of his individual experience world. Naturally a number of methodological comments could be made about all of this (see Sandfort 1979b and 1980), but the value of these data will by no means be greatly affected. How significant is this information for other children who experience paedophile relations? Since these five boys hardly constitute a random sampling of subjects, no clear answer can yet be given. Although no attempt was made to bias the sample, the researcher would evidently not have come into contact with relationships of a more problematic nature. Yet the results are of themselves already extremely interesting. It is important to emphasize here that, in contrast with all previous work in this area, none of the children had come into contact with the police or social services as a result of their paedophile relationships. Although it is hard to say how representative of paedophile relationships in general these findings may be, they undoubtedly apply to more than just these five boys. For a more extended version of this article see Sandfort 1980. A full report on this research, with the scores and calculated indices of all of the value areas formulated by the boys, is to be found in Sandfort 1979b. BONKE, P. Een nieuwe perspectief (A New Perspective) Nijmegen, doktoraalskriptie, 1977. HERMANS, H.J.M., Waardegebieden en hun ontwikkeling. (Value Areas and Their Development) Amsterdam: Swetz & Zeitlinger, <ARCHIVIST'S CORRECTION: Swets & Zeitlinger (see 1976 reference below!)> 1974. HERMANS, H.J.M., Gaat de uniek persoon in de psychologie onder? (Does Psychology Eliminate the Unique Person?) Amsterdam: Swetz & Zeitlinger, <ARCHIVIST'S CORRECTION: Swets & Zeitlinger (see 1976 reference below!)> 1975 HERMANS, H.J.M., Value areas and their development. theory and method of self-confrontation. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1976. HERMANS, H.J.M., "De aard van het waarderingsonderzoek. (The nature of Valuation Research) Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de psychologie, 1978, 33, 7, 425-440. SANDFORT, T. Pedosexuele kontakten en pedofiele relaties. (Paedosexual Contacts and Paedophile Relationships) Zeist: NISSO, 1979a. SANDFORT, T., De Evaringswereld van kinderen in pedofiele relaties. (The Experience World of Children in Paedophile Relationships) Nijmegen: in eigen beheer, 1979b. Drs. Theo Sandfort was born in Haarlem, Netherlands, in 1953. He studied psychology at the Catholic University of Nijmegen between 1974 and 1979, when he received, with honours, his doctoral degree. In his off hours and during vacations he has worked as assistant group leader with children from bad home environments. Since 1977 he has specialized in research into various aspects of paedophilia and has received important academic grants to continue his work, as well as grants from the Netherlands Institute for Sexual Sociological Research. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.15 ------------------------------------ CHILD PROTECTION, ENGLISH STYLE by Roger Moody Just about a year ago The Guardian in England ran a short feature showing Yorkshire's crime prevention officer, Chief Inspector Ray Leslie, with two of his "Special Agents" ; Darrell Tennant (12) and Andrew Ibbottson (9). They and many other Yorkshire lads, as part of a "child protection" effort, had just been issued 'Agent Cards" on which there was space for the children's names, addresses, schools, etc. On the reverse side the cards carried a "4D Warning": D1 - Don't take sweets from strangers; D2 - Don't ride in a stranger's car; D3 - Don't play outside after dark; D4 - Don't loiter on the way home from school. Obviously Mr. Leslie and his police colleagues in Great Britain are interested in protecting children from traumatic experiences in the area of sexuality, right? Wrong. As all thinking Englishmen know, the police of the United Kingdon <sic> are among the worst threats to the healthy sexual development of the children under their jurisdiction, as is made quite clear in the following account by Roger Moody of his encounter with London cops and courts. In November, 1977 my house was raided by a north London "porn squad". Ostensibly this was an attempt to link me with a small group of photographers and publishers involved in soft-core photography of boys. In truth, due to my political reputation and my frequent journalistic attacks on the establishment in a number of areas, I was regarded as the brains behind the Paedophile Information Exchange, of which I am not and never have been a member. "What we're after," one of the policemen was heard to mutter during the raid, "is PIE stuff." The porn squad picked up non-pornographic photos of some of my young friends. As luck would have it the police also seized a family allowance book which I was about to cash for one of the hard-up families I had been helping; within a few hours they had traced the family and were interviewing the boys. Nearly a year and a half later I was brought to London's Central Criminal Court (the Old Bailey) on a charge of buggering a ten-year-old by the name of Lee who had stayed with me during part of the summer holidays of 1976. He was identified by a letter sitting on my desk waiting for dispatch to his mother. In court Lee testified that the police had pressured him into making allegations against me and that my "assault" may have been "accidental". Lee's mother also testified that the police had asked her to leave on the two occasions when the boy had made the allegations. The judge disallowed the letters and some semi-nude photos I had taken of Lee as corroborative evidence and the jury, after only fifteen minutes, returned a unanimous verdict of "not guilty". That trial was the culmination of a large police effort to put me in prison. Seven boys involved in my adventure playground work had been interrogated. Only two of them had a parent present during this ordeal, and in that case only because their father had insisted that the questioning be carried out in their home by local police. Of the others, four (aged nine to fifteen) were held for a total of 14 hours each, without their parents. They were separated from each other and subjected to the kind of third-degree treatment used on hardened criminals. For example, all of the kids were refused any substantial refreshment. Twelve-year-old Paul was told that his thirteen-year-old brother Steve had "made a full confession" at the same time that Steve was told that lie about Paul. After the police said to him, "We know everything that went on between you and Roger Moody," Paul was threatened with an anal examination by police surgeons "who can discover everything you have been up to'". He was also told, "We'll keep you here until midnight unless you tell us what we want to know." Unfortunately for the designs of the ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.16 ------------------------------------ <photograph> police, there was nothing to tell. My relationship with these boys had been warm, reciprocal and very physical -- but not sexual. After many hours of interrogation -- interspersed with long periods of waiting in isolation -- all the boys assented to statements virtually prepared for them by the police (their "protectors") alleging various acts of minor indecency. After the affair was over, Paul said that the deciding factor in his own breakdown was the lie the police told him that "Roger Moody had confessed everything". Paul thought, "if Roger himself said we did these things what point is there in holding out with the truth any longer?" Of course, I had made no such confession at all. The kids' statements didn't sustain a charge against me. According to my solicitor this was because they couldn't be corroborated and nothing I had said during my two days of interrogation constituted corroboration. There are several good lessons here. The most important concerns the attitudes of the kids. I had never discussed the possibility of arrest on a sexual charge with my young friends (although none of them would have been surprised to find me arraigned for plotting to blow up a nuclear power station!). I now realise that this was a mistake. Any responsible adult who has a relationship with a "minor" (regardless of whether sex comes into it.) has an obligation to explain to his young friend the tactics of policemen: what a child sees on TV, masquerading as law and order, can easily be turned against them. Kids also need to know that they have a right to silence, just as does anyone undergoing police questioning, whether they are suspects or not. Unfortunately, in Britain at any rate, police never inform youngsters of this. But under Judges Rules (administrative directives intended to protect the rights of people undergoing interview) no one under 16 years of age should be questioned by police in the absence "of a parent or guardian or some person who is not a police officer". This directive is flagrantly disregarded. In court, however, evidence that Judges Rules have been violated can weigh quite heavily with a jury: it did so in my case. Then, too, where the police have acted improperly parents can complain. The father of Steve and Paul was outraged at the treatment of his children. Even though he has little good to say about me (now), he told a mutual friend, "The police have done more damage to my kids in one day than Roger Moody could have done in three years." Unfortunately he was unwilling to make constructive use of his indignation and lodge an official complaint. Not all parents are so reticent. Recently I was arrested again on another put-up charge concerning a nine-year-old boy by the name of Daren. Both parents complained in an official interview with my solicitor. The boy himself, under police questioning, said quite courageously, "I don't have to say anything. I can remain silent." "Who taught you that?" asked a belligerent police constable. "Was it Roger Moody?" "No," answered Daren, quite truthfully, "I read it in books." ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.17 ------------------------------------ Where a case has gone beyond the police station and is heading for trial it is still possible for both the parents and the child to stop the juggernaut if they wish. Lee's mother most emphatically did not want her son to appear in court against me, even though she believed the damaging statements the police had extorted from him. She wrote to my own solicitor, to the British National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL), even to the Director of Public Prosecutions, stating, "whatever Roger did with Lee it can only harm Lee if he has to testify against Roger." For a while I was optimistic that Lee's mother would keep him from court. A sympathetic solicitor was even lined up to support her decision should the authorities serve a subpoena on her; my own barrister was pretty sure she could have succeeded had she stuck to her guns. "What court is going to deny a mother's right to protect her son?" he asked. Unfortunately as soon as the Director of Public Prosecutions received her letter two heavies were dispatched to put pressure on her. Alone and isolated from sympathetic advice, she succumbed. It is a sad commentary on British police ethics that the more resistant an adult is to pressure -- the more he invokes his right to silence or to a solicitor -- the more mercilessly will the police often bear down on his young friend. The temptation, then, for the man to "confess" -- even to something he didn't do -- in order to let the boy get off the hook, can be enormous. I know a clergyman who confessed to an indecent assault he didn't commit just to keep the youngster, who was only fourteen, out of court. In my interrogation, after I had been intransigent for nearly two days, the Detective Sergeant in charge made the same time-dishonoured move. "Surely you want to spare Lee the pain of having to testify against you in court," he said. "I can't believe you don't -- if you love him as much as you say." Even before I was arrested I knew what my response to this tactic would be. "If this case comes to court," I told him, "I will do my utmost to show that it is you, not me, who has put Lee through this suffering." Despite deep awareness of what trials can do to kids (they are unquestionably traumatizing) and despite my personal distress at having to watch Lee stand for an hour in the witness box in the Old Bailey officially testifying against me, I have little doubt that I was right not to "protect" my young friend in the way the police wanted me to. I am not sure whether Lee perceives it like that, for I have not spoken to him since the trial. However, had I made a false confession "to keep Lee out of it", I think he would have felt guilty for the rest of his life. Statistics show that the great majority of paedophile sex offence cases which come to trial in Britain go undefended: the defendant simply pleads guilty. This in no way protects him from adverse publicity. <coloured box (sidebar):> Roger Moody is a journalist who has worked for several years on various aspects of children's rights. In autumn 1975 he published the first article ever to appear in a British journal (Peace News) in which the author identified himself as a paedophile. It called for a radical movement for paedophile liberation. For more than a decade he has pioneered the development of adventure playgrounds in urban areas. He currently lives and works in London. The material for the present article is largely drawn from a 64-page book by Roger Moody called Indecent Assault, published last March by Word Is Out Publishers, c/o 5 Caledonian Road, London N1 (80p Sterling). This is an account of his experience -- legal but more importantly personal and emotional -- in being prosecuted for allegedly buggering young Lee. It is not an easy book to read, since it relies largely upon diary entries made in the heat of the moment as events ground on. Disjointed and at times self-contradictory, it is nevertheless the most moving testimony to the cruelty of this kind of legalized moral persecution which has so far appeared in print. <end of coloured box (sidebar)> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.18 ------------------------------------ <photograph> Often it doesn't even win him the expected "light sentence" in court, for magistrates and judges are by now well used to boy-lovers making apologies and promises to get psychiatric treatment. What is most important to realise is that a man's confession is often the only corroboration the police obtain -- and without corroboration no defendant is supposed to be convicted. (In practice courts can, and sometimes do, convict without corroboration, but a defendant will stand a very good chance of success on appeal.) Without a confession the prosecution usually has to find evidence of "similar fact", acts which are so "strikingly similar" to those with which the defendant is charged as to comprise a "system". This cannot involve evidence that the defendant is a paedophile, or even that he has previously been convicted of a sex offence with children. It would also not, for example, be sufficient for a teacher to be observed sexually fondling another of his pupils in the same class as his young "victim". But if he were observed putting his hands inside the gym shorts of several boys in his gym class and he was accused of a similar act with another lad, that would almost certainly constitute a "system". The most common corroborative evidence used against paedophiles is photos or letters concerning the defendant's young friend. Such a written statement as "I touched John's cock" would be sufficient corroboration for a charge concerning John. Any paedophile who keeps such confessions around him, much less sends them to others, is putting his head irrevocably in the noose. In my case the police seized two photos of Lee undressing; both showed his unerect penis. The judge ruled that they could not be used as corroborative evidence of either attempted buggery or indecent assault. I don't know how he would have ruled had Lee had an erection -- but it might have swung the jury against me in any event. No paedophile needs to be told that he treads an extremely delicate dividing line between justifiable caution and paranoia. Should he destroy all photos and letters concerning his young friend? In my view that would merely fulfill the objectives of the police. We have a right to record the development of the kids we cherish -- and the kids themselves have a right to be party to such records. But, while such material may not stand up in court, it can be, and frequently is, pandered by the police among the kids themselves, their freinds <sic> and parents, and the children concerned thus made to feel guilty and humiliated. On balance I feel that paedophiles should keep only such records of their young friends as the kids themselves would not object to seeing published. I won my case in court, but the victory was a Pyrrhic one. Although all my property was returned the police now have me on record as a boy-lover. Although most of the kids made a special point of associating with me throughout the case (as did three parents), they, too, are now well-known to the authorities. If anything positive came out of the experience it is what I had least expected: the boys who were most harshly dealt with by the police now have a very real appreciation of what oppression, in all its forms and ugliness, means. They have grown through the last two years with strength and new-found courage. But the price they had to pay for it has been unforgivably high. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.19 ------------------------------------ THE HORIZON LINE by Gilbert Villerot "What's on the other side of the sky?" the child asked his father. "Nothing, my son. Only the sky." He gazed into the distance with a heavy heart. Chores complete, his farm forgotten, he leaned against the old crooked tree, mauve eyes searching the September sky. Nothing. Yet . . . those clouds, red clouds, moving away, must go somewhere . . . There a horseman vanished. A good boy, to those who didn't know him. . . . He was quiet, sweet, a counter of stars. "What, Sir, is on the other side of the earth?" the child asked his teacher. "Just the earth. The earth is round, like a sphere . . ." But the child was growing deaf to wounding words. On the road, far from the farm, the breeze played in his orange hair. Just the earth. Yet . . . the road which stretched, blue, before him must lead somewhere. Once again, far off, he saw the strange apparition. . . . He was a child of dreams, sometimes disturbing to his mother. Deep and compassionate, he saved little cats from drowning. "What's on the other side of the earth and the sky?" he asked the shepherd. "Child with the great eyes, I go to graze my sheep where sky and earth meet. Will you come with me?" Joy swept through him, keen as agony, and he set off beside the shepherd down the faint path, tramping toward the distant blue of the horizon. Once again he saw the solitary horseman, now hurring <sic> close and passing quickly by. But a storm burst, the horse neighed, reared; something grotesque fell onto the mountain pasture. A cry of terror. Child and shepherd approached. Then, from the folds of a great blue cloak, a young boy-girl emerged. The child fainted. Now all was silent. The eyelids of the other raised on eyes the colour of dawn. The horse vanished. The boy-girl smiled, stood up and sighed. "Would you, little child of dreams, take me in your arms and carry me where I must go?" Child turned to shepherd; the old man smiled a little and nodded. Then the two children, arm in arm, walked toward the line of the horizon and, on reaching it, disappeared. Sometimes, during the long winds of September, alone in the twilight gorse of his crystalline heath, the shepherd watches, high, always high, the great dance of his constellations. <illustration> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.20 ------------------------------------ BOOKS THE DEATH OF NARCISSUS by Morris Fraser. Martin Secker & Warburg, Ltd., London 1976 Whatever the limitations of psychoanalysis, it does provide a strangely satisfying and elegant framework upon which to hang literary analyses, and when, as here, a very astute and well-trained analyst with literary taste and a flare for writing graceful, imaginative prose tackles what he conceives to be evidence of the paedophile "disorder" in such authors as Lewis Carroll, J.M. Barrie, Henry James, F.W. Farrar, Thomas Mann, Howard Sturgis, Forrest Reid, Hugh Walpole and several others, it must be an occasion for rejoicing, even if we cannot altogether agree. Fraser gives an admirably succinct summary of how, according to analytic theory, paedophiles become paedophiles: The paedophile has, in the first place, been doubly deprived; his emotional attachment to his mother has been intense, but not fully returned, or not returned at all. His father has been absent, disliked or despised. As a result, the dilemma which he reaches at the Oedipal stage is particularly cruel. To an extent, this crisis is common to all male children; a boy becomes aware of his father's role, and thus of the threatened loss to him of exclusive possession of his mother. The classical defence is "identification with the aggressor", in which the boy takes his father as his behavioural model; by doing so, he hopes to absorb from his father the characteristics which will again capture his mother's affection. But what happens to the boy when his father is absent, or where there is some intense, or even subtle, father-son aversion? The practical effect is that the father then cannot, of course, be the male model, and there is no "aggressor" with whom to identify. Doubly frustrated, the boy turns back on the only love-object left -- himself. Thus narcissistic inversion takes place and, as he grows older, he remains deeply in love with the child he was then. This is impossible, so he must project (i.e., transfer his affection outwards) on to other children of a similar age to this lost child, who thus become love objects to him. "How," Fraser asks at the outset, "are the phases of paedophilic inversion conveyed in fantasy?" And what better way to see than to read with psychoanalytic hindsight the highly disguised literary productions of late nineteenth century and early twentieth century child-lovers? Their books for children, especially, are a bonanza of symbols and themes ready-made for the followers of the only profession, outside of sooth-saying, which involves itself deeply in the interpretation of dreams. Perhaps most important is the peculiar aura of the lost/remote/longed-for mother. Sometimes she is a witch, sometimes a goddess, often both. Never, according to Fraser, is the mother figure warm, good, simple and steady. J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan, it will be recalled, was a boy who grew up "without feelings", and this was because he was "locked out", abandonned, <sic> from his home: Peter called, "Mother, Mother!" but she heard him not; in vain he beat his little limbs against the iron bars . . . (This, incidentally, leads to a wonderful discussion of the origins of ghosts.) In the ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.21 ------------------------------------ fascinating At the Back of the North Wind by George MacDonald the mother figure is cosmic, magical: sometimes she is even the lady spinning silver threads in the moon. The "moment of projection" (the recognition of the beloved child) is often a highly mystical experience. A projection of oneself onto a boy in fantasy produces beautiful, magical, etherial <sic> figures -- they are never hearty, happy, clowning souls who get dirty and tease their little brothers and chew gum. Often, too, they are never permitted to grow up. In the case of Peter Pan, of course, eternal childhood was programmed into his very nature; more commonly in these fantasies the loved boy dies at the end, or is carried off to some mystical land -- often in expectation of some kind of mystical reunion with the mystical mother. In symmetry with the lost mother there is the Wise Old Man: So who is this Friend? The perfect human companion, or ideal friend, so restlessly sought by the young Hugh Walpole? A substitute father? God? Or, perhaps more likely, the Gentle Jesus from Sunday School? He could easily be all of these but he is, in fact, none of them. He is, as the author says, undoubtedly St. Christopher -- but the special version of St. Christopher who belongs only in paedophilic fantasy -- the saint without a halo. We have met him in The Earl-King, <ARCHIVIST'S CORRECTION: Erl-King> and will meet him again the company of Forrest Reid and some others; he is the man who lifts and carries the magical child, one arm under his knees, the other under his armpits or behind the nape of his neck, carries him in a way that has clear reference to what we called the "secondary" erogenous zones -- those not directly concerned with the genital embrace, but having major sexual significance nevertheless. The Wise Old Man is the author's father as he should have been but wasn't, but more important he is the writer himself, the aged child, the comforter, the teacher of secrets -- Narcissus as adult gazing into the pool at himself as a child. Perhaps the most appealing reincarnation of the Wise Old Man in recent times, as quoted by Fraser, is Merlin in T.H. White's The Once and Future King. A number of persistent symbols are analyzed, entertainingly and with much insight, by Fraser. Water is one of them, and the sea is central to many of these stories. A number of lads die by drowning. Like the moon, water is linked by Fraser to the problematic mother. It will come as a surprise to many readers that Fraser considers Henry James ("this wily old master of enigma and the subordinate clause,") at least in part paedophile, bringing not only the fairly obvious Turn of the Screw, but also some of James' short stories to witness. Fraser resists the temptation to plough through Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass for exotic symbols and ingenious interpretations of them and instead concentrates on interpreting the main thrust of the narrative as it relates to the author's paedophilic fantasies. The end of the book is marred by some sad nonsense about non-heterosexual sex being sick (" . . .sexual inversion is really a <photograph> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.22 ------------------------------------ very complex sexual disorder -- not a style of choice, but a product of imperfect personal integration that mere physical sex or even close friendship cannot begin to heal. . . . these liasons <sic> are harmful, and are bound by their nature to be unsatisfying for both child and adult."), but by then Fraser has weaved his magic spell and sent us back to our dusty shelves of children's books or the closest lending library to reread the Barrie books, At the Back of the North Wind, Denis Bracknell, Tim, and, of course, The Once and Future King and we need not worry too much about this (perhaps obligatory) genuflexion before the altar of conventional sexual morality. <photograph> J.M. BARRIE AND THE LOST BOYS: THE LOVE STORY THAT GAVE BIRTH TO PETER PAN, by Andrew Birkin (London: Constable; New York: Clarkston Potter, 1979) Reviewed by Donald H. Mader After reading the valuable literary spadework begun in Morris Fraser s Death of Narcissus -- and it is that literary-critical work, not Fraser's psychiatric conclusions, which make his a worthwhile book! - one wishes for further, deeper examination of the paedophile themes in the lives and work of each individual author he considers. That need has now been met in part for James M. Barrie, creator of "the boy who wouldn't grow up", with this release. Though intended as a biographical study focusing on Barrie's relationship with the five Llewelyn Davies boys, this book also serves as a useful tool for literary criticism, as Birkin draws freely from Barrie's literary works (as well as journals, notebooks, letters back and forth between Barrie and the boys, and other unpublished material) in allowing the sources to speak for themselves. The volume is also profusely and tastefully illustrated with photographs, many by Barrie himself and previously unknown. In keeping with his intention of having his sources tell the story themselves, Birkin does not attempt a psychological evaluation of Barrie. In a sense, he does not need to; the sources speak all too painfully. A case could easily be made from them that Barrie himself was the most perfect example of the "Peter Pan Syndrome", which proposes that paedophiles are individuals "blocked" in their normal social and psychological development and thus, like Barrie's creation, remain in some way eternal boys. Even Barrie's contemporaries recognized this quality in him, from the relatively uncritical observations that he "had a way" with children, and could at will enter their fantasy world, through Max Beerbohm's perceptive first-night review of Peter Pan which observed that Barrie was something "rarer than a genius" -- a child ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.23 ------------------------------------ who, by chance, could express in mature art the child's spirit in him. The record also gives us plenty of possibilities as to when and how this "blocking" might have taken place for Barrie. Quite probably, as Morris Fraser suggests, it stemmed from Barrie's responses at age six to his mother's grief over the death of her favourite son, David, little James' elder by seven years. Certainly Barrie returned to this event, in one guise or another, again and again throughout his works. But even if we accept all this, we will find that we have not said very much about Barrie and his achievements, any more than we can exhaust Walt Whitman's art by calling him "gay" or James Baldwin's by calling him "black". For that matter, was Barrie even really a paederast? Although many of the documents he presents are suggestive, Birkin dodges the question as being outside his intentions. He does allow two of his sources to deny it: Nicholas Llewelyn Davies, the youngest of the five brothers to whom Barrie was guardian, and Lord Boothby, a school-mate of Michael Llewelyn Davies. Neither -- particularly the latter, with his involvement with the Bloomsbury group -- was naive about the possibility; I judge that they speak honestly. And despite all the fuel for speculation the documents present -- giving full weight also to the possibility of their having been "edited" by Peter Llewelyn Davies when he collected the family papers -- there is nothing in them to contradict this testimony. In the realm of judgement again, I suspect that the letters from Barrie to Michael Llewelyn Davies that Peter destroyed were more evidence for puerility than prurience. One's own answer will depend upon how one defines paederasty. If it is to say that Barrie appears to have found the only meaningful and fulfilling relationships of his life with the young Llewelyn Davies boys, then the answer is yes. If it is to say that there was a conscious homoerotic relationship, with or without physical expression, the answer is almost certainly no. The explanation may be that Barrie was almost asexual; during this 1909 divorce trial his impotence was widely rumoured. More likely, it was the result of denial and repression. Barrie himself would certainly have been in horror of any suggestion that his devotion contained "impure" elements, that it was anything more than thwarted parental feelings. Yet passages like this from The Little White Bird betray so much more: I placed (David) on my knee and removed his blouse. This was a delightful experience, but I think I remained wonderfully calm until I came somewhat too suddenly to his little braces, which agitated me profoundly . . . <photograph> ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.24 ------------------------------------ <photograph> "Why, David," said I, sitting up, "do you want to come into my bed?" "Mother said I wasn't to want it unless you wanted it first," he squeaked. "It is what I have been wanting all the time," said I . . . These have a frankness that can only be sprung of innocence. It is almost impossible for us, living in the age of analysis, to conceive the absence of self-understanding (particularly sexual) which was possible for Barrie and his society, when even heterosexual love was divorced from sexuality. How much more so for any love outside society's pale! While such ignorance left room for licence among the more knowing, it also resulted in the vapid poems to friendship that comprise so much of the "gay" literature of the time, and Barrie's unintentionally revealing words and chaste behaviour. In the end, Barrie's was a tragic life. He might cry bravely, as Peter Pan does when asked about the seasons, "There is only spring!" but when the fall came, it came crushingly, and fast. To look upon the portrait of Barrie taken at the funeral of Michael Llewelyn Davies, reproduced on page 294 of Birkin's book, is to know the full burden of sorrow. But what was the greatest tragedy in Barrie's life? The loss of George Llewelyn Davies -- the eldest of the brothers, Barrie's first love among them, "David" of The Little White Bird and the original of Peter Pan -- in the "Great War"? The loss of Michael Llewelyn Davies -- the fourth brother, by the others' admission the brightest and most commanding personality, and the one with whom Barrie had the deepest and most complex relationship -- six years later in a swimming accident, perhaps suicide? Or was it that Barrie never understood his own affections, and thus could never reconcile himself to, or understand, events as they overtook him? Surely the note of sadness was there throughout his works, from Sentimental Tommy to the late notebook entry, "It is as if long after writing P. Pan its true meaning came to me - desperate attempt to grow up but can't." Michael Davidson, almost the same age as Barrie's boys, remarks of Frederick Rolfe, "Baron Corvo", that for all his cleverness Corvo could never have become a great man, for he lacked self-understanding, the honesty of self-appraisal that is the key to greatness. Barrie and Rolfe were alike in important ways: writers who were at their most brilliant when their subject was really themselves; perceptive observers of others who, the Venice letters and the father-and-son scenes in Barrie's wartime plays notwithstanding, never really understood and admitted their deepest motives. Perhaps both lacked the capacity to know, Rolfe by madness, Barrie by the limits of his blocked personality. Of course, had either of them really gained self-awareness, the works of genius each produced might not have ever existed, at least in the form we have them. What they did not -- maybe could not -- deal with in life, when filtered through their consciousness, emerged as their art. Though they may not have been better off for their failure, perhaps we are. Peter Pan was the offspring of a love affair -- not the "love that dares not speak its name", but a love that likely didn't even know its name. That was the source of Barrie's tragedy, and his accomplishment. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.25 ------------------------------------ BOY-CAUGHT by Dr. Edward Brongersma In 1970 a committee was appointd by the Dutch Government to look into those parts of our Penal Code dealing with sexual crimes and offences. Three years later, in its official report, it recommended that in almost every area there should be less interference by the authorities. Among other things it supported legalizing complete nudity on some sections of our beaches -- but also warned that boys and girls under 16 shouldn't be allowed to go there. Evidently the committee members thought that the sight of stark naked men and women would inflict serious harm on the innocent souls of children and young adolescents. The government didn't heed this warning. Two years later it legalized our de facto nudist beaches without imposing any age limits at all. Every year, now, boys and girls flock to these spots and no one complains of their being traumatized. Many parents feel it is good for their offspring to get acquainted from the start with the conformation of both sexes and to know the healthy joy of playing naked in the sun. It is very strange, this concept that confrontation with things as natural as nakedness and sex damages children. People who are ready to believe this must never have asked themselves what happens to children in cultures where nudity is common and there is no secret or mystery about sexual activities. Anthropologist who have studied such cultures have, on the contrary, often been struck by the obvious mental health and happiness of the children living in them. Even in Western Europe some centuries ago both sexes mingled naked in the common bath houses -- sometimes even walked there from home without their clothes. The whole family -- father, mother, children, servants, guests -- slept naked in the same room. Needless to say, children in those times didn't receive special lessons in sexual matters, nor were there special books written for them on the subject. They simply learned about sex by watching it happen in the bedroom, and evidently they grew up without being troubled by their observations. Erasmus of Rotterdam, the famous humanist, dedicated a book to the six-year-old son of one of his friends, and in it he discussed the joys of sex and recorded a conversation between a whore and one of her clients. No one at the time found this unusual: a boy of six was evidently thought capable of understanding such information. As a matter of course, young people began their sexual lives quite early. The city of Ulm in Germany even had to ban boys younger than twelve from the brothels because they were becoming too numerous. Marriages at 14 were common. It was only much later in history, and only under the pressure of social and economic evolution, that adults decided that the sight of naked bodies and sexual activities was contrary to Christian morals. Soon, too, they convinced themselves that nakedness and sex were harmful to children. Freud and his followers made much ado about the disasters wrought upon children's souls if they witnessed the coitus of their parents. This became a constant theme in literature, and Norman Kiell devotes one long chapter in Varieties of Sexual Experience -- Psychosexuality in Literature to descriptions of "the primal scene". Now a sexually naive boy who stumbles upon a couple of lovers may, of course, be horrified and disgusted -- by the movements, sighs and groans of passion, the seeming violence of the scene -- and so he may interpret what he sees as a sadistic and brutal act. But the problem lies not in his witnessing the copulation but in his upbringing which has failed to prepare him for it. Had he known what to expect, and that both people were enjoying the sex, he would suffer no harm, and, in fact, ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.26 ------------------------------------ his natural curiosity would be satisfied. I know of one case where a boy of eleven, John, was entrusted to foster parents, a young couple of about thirty. Peter, the new father, talked with John about sex, describing everything in a nice, personal way. As Peter told it, this was not something "the man" did to "the woman" but an act of mutual loving. Encouraged by Peter's openness, the boy asked lots of questions, revealing that he was quite familiar with sexual tension in himself and how to relieve it and showing in general a lively curiosity in these matters. So Peter invited John to come to their bedroom that night and see how it all went. John was not shocked, disgusted or traumatized by this spectacle of adult love-making. On the contrary, he was impressed by the beauty of it -- and at the same time became terribly sexually excited. Now, is there anything wrong in this, in the phenomenon of healthy and natural sexual excitement in a young boy? John grew up to be a nice open adolescent, in fine mental health, adoring his new-found parents and deeply grateful that he had been allowed to watch them in one of their most intimate moments. Sex from then on had a fine and rich meaning in his life. I recall a boy-lover telling us at a paedophile group meeting that he always avoided having an orgasm himself while making love with his young friend. He explained that his orgasms were always very passionate and violent and the didn't want to shock the boy he loved by his behaviour. Most of his listeners thought he was wrong -- and I agree with them. I remember a story once told to me by Olaf, a Swedish homophile author. One <photograph> bright summer day when he was eleven he met a stranger at the local swimming pool. The man was very nice to him, they had a pleasant conversation and finally they started play-wrestling by the edge of the pool. The physical contact was nice, in fact it was stimulating and they soon both had hearty erections. Then the man said, "Wouldn't it be nice to do this naked?" Olaf agreed. "Then let's go to my home," the man proposed. Olaf followed the man to his flat, where they both immediately threw off their clothes. Olaf liked the fondling, the cuddling, the love-play that went on for some time. Then the man pulled Olaf into a tight embrace; his movements became passionate and he had a violent orgasm. Olaf at the time didn't know anthing <sic> about such experiences but he was not in the least shocked. In fact he was enormously impressed by what had transpired and ran home dancing and singing for joy, elated at the fact that, young as he was, he could provoke such strong feelings and inspire such a passion in an adult man. The experience strengthened his self-esteem; he gained in self-assurance; his body acquired a new significance -- and importance -- to him. Nature has her reasons for what she does. Sexuality and its physical expressions are not shocking or traumatizing but are quite natural, beautiful and exciting to a child if he is confronted with them in a natural way. We should better question how traumatizing to a child's mental development are so many of the non-natural things with which we, in our society, don't hesitate daily to confront him: the lack of playgrounds in our cities, the dullness of so many of his hours in school, the tension of tests and examinations, violence on the television screen, the peril of life on the roads. These kill or cripple children; in growing numbers they are driving children to suicide. Nevertheless we accept them. The only things our culture really "protects" them from (i.e. deprives them of) are the natural pleasures of sex which could make them happy and teach them how to love and to be loved. ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.27 ------------------------------------ THE BATTLE LINE "It's worse than homicide. A homicide is terrible, but it's over with very shortly. The victim of sexual exploitation has to live the rest of his or her life with those memories of what pornography and sexual deviation brings upon them." - Lloyd Martin, Los Angeles Police Department. "I never came across anyone in whom the moral sense was dominant who was not heartless, cruel, vindictive, log-stupid, and entirely lacking in the smallest sense of humanity. Moral people, as they are termed, are simply beasts. I would sooner have fifty unnatural vices, than one unnatural virtue. It is unnatural virtue that makes the world, for those who suffer, such a premature Hell." - Oscar Wilde. "I nominate Detective Lloyd Martin as pug-ugly of the year." - Valida Davila Lloyd Martin first came to national attention in the United States during the Congressional "investigation" of sexual exploitation of children in 1977 (See PAN 4, pages 26-30). His "Sexually Abused Child Unit" then consisted of himself and six other policemen and they hadn't much to show for all the taxpayers' money spent on them despite his estimate that there were over 30,000 "sexually exploited" children and 30 to 50 commercial kiddie porn producers in Los Angeles alone, the area of his authority. His sole success had been the first Guy Strait bust, and that had taken place in San Francisco. Now his unit has grown to ten and he has made at least one semi-successful bust in his own area. For decades the ATHLETIC MODELS GUILD has produced old-fashioned "male physique" magazines -- the sort showing youngish men bulging their muscles, clad in posing straps and oil. Somehow Martin's men obtained a search warrant, raided AMG's offices and carted off photos and AMG's mailing list. Richard W. Erickson, one of Martin's underlings, said he thought they had a good case against AMG, "if we can find a victim". They are looking for a boy, said to be 14, whose nude photos were found in the AMG haul. Most of Martin's successes, however, have been outside his jurisdiction. He takes full credit for engineering the arrests of Jacobs in Woods Hole, Massachusetts (See PAN 4, page 6) and Hostel in Baltimore. Then, too, it was correspondence his unit seized in a local raid which led to the bust of Jacques Dugue in Paris and the scandal which helped kill the recent French sexual reform bill. Martin is most certainly a collector of lists. When asked by John Mitzel of Boston what happened to the names of people acquired in the AMG raid, his colleague Erikson said nothing would happen to them -- unless they were needed in a further investigation. Not surprisingly, Martin has trouble with the American Civil Liberties Union over his free use of private material. But he claims support in the gay community. "We don't arrest gays. We arrest boy-lovers and child molestors <sic> . . . If it hadn't been for the gay people we wouldn't have made some of these cases." In practice, most of his ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.28 ------------------------------------ aid seems to be from endangered boy-lovers themselves whom he can tempt with offers of non-prosecution if they will set up their friends and associates. We have heard of no cases where gays have voluntarily cooperated with Martin -- if they did we doubt very much whether they would retain their friends in the gay community. Another way Martin's men go about busting boy-lovers is to pose as paedophiles themselves. They hang around pinball and pick-up scenes, befriend lonely kids and then worm out of them information about their adult friends. Lloyd Martin has followed the Densen-Gerber/Mary Whitehouse trail to Australia, <photograph> where he spoke at a police seminar in Sydney on child pornography and prostitution. "The homosexuals picketed," Martin said. "I demanded an apology from their leader." (He didn't get one, although CAMP NSW wrote an amazingly fair story about his speech). But, thanks to Martin and other US authorities, the panic button seems to have been pushed "down under". "The Australian Commonwealth Police have received a list of names and addresses from the beloved FBI," writes a PAN correspondent in Sydney. "These were from mailing lists seized in the USA. The story our police are spreading is that the FBI are real keen to get a person to state that he received unsolicited child porn and/or animal porn (has the FBI set up a "Sexually Abused Animal Unit? - Ed.). They are prepared to fly such a person to the USA to testify. Local police here are taking this opportunity to "put the frighteners" on purchasers of all types of gay porn. They interviewed some friends of mine the other day, although my friends are not into animals or kids. One shudders to think what the repercussions of such a 'surprise' visit might be to the guy who was married, etc. This means that out police have the names and addresses of quite a few people who might reasonably be suspected of being gay." According to the Sydney newspapers, it was Martin who gave the George Jacobs list of correspondents to the Australian police. The same tactics are being used in California. Last December 17th Gerald Jones, a teacher with a master's degree in Educational Psychology, was visited by the Los Angeles police wanting to search his apartment. Jones was well known to the authorities as one of the rare out-of-the-closet paedophiles and had written articles under his own name for both Better Life Monthly and Hermes. Jones refused but the next noon the police were back with a warrant from a Los Angeles judge claiming he was "a registered sex offender", that he had been seen in the company of many young boys and that he was suspected of being involved in child pornography. As a teacher and member of ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.29 ------------------------------------ Big Brothers of America, his association with minors was not surprising. The police took away photos, porno magazines, personal correspondence, cameras, books, even copies of PAN Magazine. After that Gerald Jones heard no more from them directly. Martin's men, however, began to busy themselves interviewing everyone he knew, from the kids he was associated with to his professional colleagues and employers at school. As a result he lost his job and was "disbarred" from Big Brothers. In addition, several of his correspondents, whose names Martin's minions had obtained during their raid, started receiving strange, unsolicited letters. "I got your name from a mutual friend up north," they would typically begin. The writer would then go on to offer the recipient sex with the boys he knew. Except for wrecking Gerald Jones's professional and social life, the investigation seems to have been a failure. No charges were brought against him. Through his lawyer he petitioned the court for return of the items confiscated by the police, and last March the police voluntarily brought them all back. Two newspapers, The Chicago Tribune and a local paper in northern Michigan, started the Great American Paedophile Panic in 1977. Although subsequent investigations showed these stories to be nothing more than a soufle <sic> of a few grains of fact, a pinch of speculation and lots and lots of lies and hot air, three crusaders emerged to carry the campaign out of the gutter and into the state and federal legislatures with the aim of propelling all of America's paedophiles into court and thence into prisons or mental hospitals. Of these three people, Robert F. Leonard, president of the National Association of District Attorneys, has been convicted of stealing federal funds and is off to prison himself (See PAN 4, page 8) and "psychiatrist" Judianne Densen-Gerber has been exposed as a professional fraud, sadist and probable embezzler. That leaves Lloyd Martin as king of the paedophobes. Unlike the other two, Martin, it would <photograph> seem, is at least sincere -- and rather brave. Despite the personal hatred he is generating among gays and boy-lovers, he freely gives out his home address (221 South Hill Street, Los Angeles 90012). In a picture TIME MAGAZINE ran not long ago he looks like the sort of high-school football coach we all remember from our teen years -- worshipped by the jocks and derided by the rest for his interminable anti-masturbation lectures. "I believe in aggressive law enforcement," Martin has said. "I think the morality of this country is breaking down." He is 37, married and the father of three. There seems to be little love lost between him and "Jingle-Bells Judy" Densen-Gerber: "I cross paths with her at Congressional hearings. But I've been involved in this activity much longer than she has." Martin knows Robin Lloyd, author of quickie-expose For Money or Love, but claims (not very convincingly) that he does not use him to get at paedophiles. Although he has never read the Kinsey reports and claims no familiarity with professional literature on ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.30 ------------------------------------ sexuality, he teaches a course called "Sexual Exploitation of Children" at the University of Southern California, where he feels it is his duty to educate the public that young boys have sex with adults. All paedophiles need incarceration and treatment, according to Martin. To his credit, Martin ruled out surgical castration as a means of therapy. He does not seem to be familiar with anti-androgen injections used by some doctors on paedophiles to stop sexual desire and prevent erections (See PAN 1, page 23 and PAN 4, page 31). In fact, there is a great deal Captain Lloyd Martin doesn't know, and to an extent this excuses him, despite the havoc he is making of good people's lives. Unlike the American press, which habitually portrays the boy-lover as a child raper and murderer, Martin honestly recognizes paedophiles as the gentle men they usually are: "Children are seduced by paedophiles through attention and affection. Paedophiles tend not to be violent persons. Most paedophiles -- over 99 and one half percent -- never use force on their victims." It is America's misfortune that a conventionally decent man like Martin should be so ignorant of the facts of life, should see paedophile contacts as evil and vicious rather than loving and beneficial. It is America's shame that such a man should have the position and power he does. <coloured box (sidebar):> In Chicago post offices this government printed notice is appearing: STOP pornography and indecent liberties against children. Report matters to the HOTLINE Telephone number (313) 886-5979, or write THE HOT LINE, P.O. Box 7250, Chicago, IL 60680. Information may be reported anonymously. Participating agencies include all local police agencies, the US Postal Service and US Customs. <end of coloured box (sidebar)> <advertisement:> <illustration> ART FOR BOY-LOVERS Realistic facsimilie <sic> reproductions of oil paintings, on canvas or hardboard, framed or unframed. Also art prints of above on paper, drawings and red chalk prints. Ask for full-colour catalogue, only DM 5. POJKART Verlag Jugend in der Kunst Harry Turne Hogenbergstrasse 16 D-8000 Munchen 21, B.R.D. Telefon (089) 580 30 74-75 ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.31 ------------------------------------ SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION Prices quoted below include postage and all copies will come in plain semi-sealed envelopes via printed-matter rates. For subscriptions outside Europe copies will be airmailed. If you wish your copies to come in sealed envelopes write us for special mailing rates. <here follows a table with prices for the various countries> HOW TO MAKE PAYMENTS FOR YOUR SUBSCRIPTION TO PAN In you live in Britain or Eire, send an ordinary cheque with your order, or write for our Bank- Giro payment form. If you live in Continental Europe exclusive of France, you may 1) send a cheque drawn on a German, Swiss, Belgian, Dutch or Spanish bank, in the currency of the country of the bank, 2) send cash by registered post or 3) send a Mandat International Postale. Dutch guilders in cash are accepted only from subscribers in The Netherlands. If you live in France you can comply with French currency regulations by sending a Mandat International Postale or a Euro-cheque made out in Dutch guilders. If you live in the USA, Canada or Latin America, send a cashier's cheque in US dollars on a US bank, or US dollars in cash by registered post. If you live anywhere else in the world send cash in your native currency by registered post. SUBSCRIPTION FORM SPARTACUS, P.O. Box 3496 1001 AG Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Please enter my one year (5-issue) subscription to PAN ____________________________________ Name ____________________________________ Address I enclose _________ for a one-year subscription, beginning __________ with number (All back issues of PAN are available.) ==================================== Pan, Number 5, p.32 (back cover) ------------------------------------ <full-page photograph>